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Ataturk Freemason

PROOF: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a Freemason. Watch later. Share. Copy link. Info. Shopping. Tap to unmute. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. Up Next Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a politician, military leader, and Freemason who established equal civil and voting rights for men and women in Turkey. Mustafa Kemal-Ataturk was born on the 19th of May, 1881 at the tail end of the Ottoman Empire's reign Duluth Masonic Lodge #480 - Free & Accepted Masons of Georgia: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (Founder of the Republic of Turkey) ETOSHA LODGE 7148 EC: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938) founder of modern Turkey was a member of Lodge Mecedonia Resorta Veritas

Masonic Biographies| Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

PROOF: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a Freemason - YouTub

  1. ati (New World Order); Refuting the lies of the Crypto-Jewish secular kemalist Zionist regime which occupied the Ottoman Turkish territories after the First World Wa
  2. d this development
  3. isters, the President of the Parliament, more than 60 deputies and many state governors, were Freemasons, Ataturk's private doctor, M. Kemal Oke, was a Past Grand Master. In 1935 the English, Germans and Russians transformed Turkey into a vast stage for propaganda and espionage
  4. Jewish Freemason: Ataturk. Dr M says this man saved Islam. Huh! Well, Tun Dr Mahathir's idol (Musatafa Kemal Ataturk) was a Jew Freemason. Read Hillel Halkin's ARTICLE. Now you know where we are going to and whom does he admire. Did you see like Freemason Ataturk, Tun always says science and not Islam? You know now

The Grand Lodge of Turkey (Turkish: Hür ve Kabul Edilmiş Masonlar Büyük Locası) is the largest Masonic Grand Lodge in Turkey, labouring in the three symbolic degrees of ancient Freemasonry. It was established in 1909 and consists of over 250 Lodges in 10 cities around Turkey; including 5 English speaking, 3 French speaking, 1 German speaking and 1 Greek speaking Lodges Jewish Founders of Modern Turkey | Masonic Dictator Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Was A Zionist Jew PROOF: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a Freemason July 28, 2007 at 9:01 pm · Filed under Multimedia / Videos , Who Was Mustafa Kema

Just consider the extraordinary range of people who have been freemasons, from authors like Alexander Pope, Edmund Burke, Walter Scott, Robert Burns and Arthur Conan Doyle, and a varied array of statesmen including Washington, Garibaldi, Ataturk and Churchill, to musicians as diverse as Haydn, Sibelius and Duke Ellington, and actors from David Garrick to Peter Sellers. http://freemasonry.dept.shef.ac.uk/index.php?q=papers_3 DOENMEH AND FREEMASONR You may not know this, but Freemasonry is a thing in the orient as well and has been for many years; see our list of notable oriental Freemasons in this post ataturk was a crypto-jewish cabal operative & freemason! To this date, there is extreme confusion among Muslims and non-Muslims alike regarding who was Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the destroyer of the Ottoman Caliphate and the desecrator of Islam in Turkey

According to the prosecutor's office, Kaya claimed that Atatürk was a freemason in a picture he shared on social media on Dec. 16, 2016, drawing attention to the hand gesture of the leader. In a separate social media post on April 16, Kaya also reportedly claimed that Atatürk was intended to be shown as presenting the Turkish women to the Iranian Shah in a picture showing the leader and his guests MASTAFA KEMAL ATATURK (a Freemason) is recognised as the founding President of today's modern Turkey and the International Airport for Istanbul is named after him. Ataturk International Airport. In 1956 the Grand Lodge of Turkey was reestablished in its current form and, together with the light introduction in 1962, recognition was. According to the prosecutor's office, Kaya claimed that Atatürk was a freemason in a picture he shared on social media on Dec. 16, 2016, drawing attention to the hand gesture of the leader. In a separate social media post on April 16, Kaya also reportedly claimed that Atatürk was intended to be shown as presenting the Turkish women. Because it seems pretty likely he was, indeed a freemason (initiated in Thessalonik in the italian lodge 80 : Macedonia Resorta et Veritas). Which he finally left. During his stay in France, he was in touch with several brothers for the French Gra..

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - World Leader and Freemaso

Apa yang boleh disimpulkan, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk mungkin seorang anggota atau bekas anggota Freemason, dan mungkin beliau tidak menganggotai organisasi itu, tetapi apa yang jelas adalah beliau dikelilingi oleh golongan Masonik. Namun Ataturk berjaya menyingkirkan mereka seorang demi seorang sehingga menghentikan terus aktiviti Mason di Turki Some historians have suggested that Ataturk adopted his name because he was a descendant of none other than Rabbi Zevi, the self-proclaimed Messiah of the Dönmeh! Ataturk also abolished Turkey's use of the Arabic script and forced the country to adopt the western alphabet. Modern Turkey: a secret Zionist state controlled by the Dönme Jews, Freemasons Founded and Run Secular Turkey; Dictator Mustafa Kemal Was Jewish Too Quote: Long before the 'cultural revolution' of Communist China, and starting before the Bolshevik Jews of Russia destroyed Christianity and Christians in the Slavic World, the Doenmeh (the Secret Jews of Turkey), and especially Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk. Information about the Turkish secret society Dömneh which is currently controlling Turke Composed of both men and women Freemasons, fraternally united without distinction of race, religion, creed, or sexual orientation, The Honorable Order of Universal Co-Masonry has established a system of workings that is both ceremonial and symbolic and that allows its members to erect a Mystic Temple to The Great Architect of the Universe and to the Perfection of Humanity

Masonic Lodges Confirm That Mustafa Kemal Was A Freemason

The Great Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was the first Muslim leader to expel freemasons out of Turkey. The Muslim modern leaders are freemason or servants of freemasons and corrupt. 2 More than a hundred years ago, the British government appointed Dr. William Hunter to propose specific measures that would enable Muslims in the Indian subcontinent to be ruled more efficiently. Hunter recommended that the Muslim youth be western educated. Western education would make Muslims more tolerant of the British rule, like the Hindus who had already succumbed to such a British gambit Kemal Atatürk (Turkish meaning Kemal, Father of Turks; 1881 - 10 November 1938) original name Mustafa Kemal, also known as Mustafa Kemal Paşa, was a secular Turkish nationalist officer and politician who was the founder and first president (1923-38) of the Republic of Turkey and who introduced wide-ranging reforms.. Controversies include ancestry, sometimes claimed to have been.

The question about whether Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a Freemason is hotly debated. There are strong views both for and against this proposition. Both sides of the debate have been represented.He. mustafa kemal ataturk who created the secular turkish republic is a staunch atheist who doesn't believe in God, yet he was part of freemasonry. Isn't that a contradiction since masonry is an organization who at its core believes in a god, any God (I believe this because of the all seeing eye yall got)

Masonic Dictator Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Was A Donmeh

Truth About Masonic Jewish Gay Dictator Mustafa Kemal

Freemasons (Or Templars) in Turke

The Hystory of Freemasonry in Turke

  1. It shows how Mustafa Kemal Ataturk closed down Masonic Lodges in Turkish. It was the Ismet Inenu and Celal Bayar allowed the Freemason back in Turkey soon after Mustafa Kemal Ataturk passed away Ever since then, Turkey went down hill The Great Mustafa Ataturk picked up the ashes of the old Ottoman Empire to a new Nation
  2. Franklin dan Thomas Jefferson yang dikaitkan dengan Freemason pun membenci Yahudi dan seringkali menghina Yahudi. Ya, mereka ahli Freemason
  3. We have a friend who's husband was a 33rd degree mason for years, when we visit at christmas time - while seasonal regalia ensues - I'm usually in the corner with her huge masonic family bible - the thing is huge - largest bible I've ever seen - the illustrations and gold leaf are phenomenal
  4. Admiral The Lord Beresford GCB, GCVO. William Cody (Buffalo Bill) Field Marshal The Viscount Combermere GCB, GCH, KSI, PC . Field Marshal Sir John French, 1st Earl of Ypres KP. Field Marshal The Earl Haig KT. Field Marshal The Earl Kitchener of Khartoum KG, KP. Admiral of the Fleet The Earl Jellicoe GCb, OM, GCVO, SG

The Hidden Side: Is Dr Mahathir A Freemason? Why Support

Ataturk was a very good Muslim and he loved Islam and Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.). We can see his love for Islam and Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.) in Ataturk's following part of a speech: Those who doubt that he is a true prophet should look at this map and read the epic of Badr. The victory that the Prophet Muhammad (saas) won with a. The reformer and creator of the Republic of Turkey, Ataturk surrounded himself with Freemasons throughout his career. During the fight for independence, six of his seven high ranking military staff officers were Freemasons. He was a part of Lodge Veritas in Salonica, which was overseen by the French Grand Orient..

Winston Churchill, a Scottish Rite Freemason, was eventually invested as Knight of the Order of the Garter. He was The Turkish people refused to accept this arrangement, however, and under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the remnants of the Young Turk movement formed a government in Ankara,. Dalam dokumen tersebut dipaparkan secara rinci bagaimana kaum Freemason melakukan penyusupan ke berbagai sektor vital pemerintahan Turki untuk mengakhiri kekuasaan Sultan Abdul Hamid II dan mengangkat Mustafa Kamal Ataturk, untuk menghapuskan kekhalifahan Islam di Turki Ataturk Photographed with the Young Turks Conspiracy Theory Photograph of U.S. President George W. Bush prior to his Masonic initiation & U.S. Secretary of Defense Freemason Donald Rumsfeld 'cutting' a sign. Differences between Masonic and American pledge of allegiance: Hand centered in middle of chest, not diagonal to shoulde The key persons of the Young Turk movement were Jewish, including Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. The Committee of Union and Progress, later known as Young Turk movement which was responsible for the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the genocide of Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians, was created and controlled by Jews. The group is headed by a Freemason. Nov 16, 2013 - Photo of great leader for fans of ATATÜRK 3443783

File:Peace in the country,Peace in the worldJahbulon, Isyarat Tangan Tersembunyi yang Kerap Dilakukan

Freemasonry in Turkey - Wikipedi

KAITAN FREEMASON Menurut sesetengah dakwaan, seorang ahli politik dari Kedah iaitu Sanusi Junaid mendedahkan bahawa Tunku merupakan ahli Freemason yang ketika itu popular dengan buku bertajuk, Apa Salahnya Masuk Freemason. Manakala di Turki, amat masyhur bahawa Mustafa Kamal Ataturk merupakan ahli Freemason dengan banyaknya bukti yang. Ataturk closed down the masonic lodges, he also had his finance minister Djavid Bey hanged. Many prominent Jews from all over the world appealed to have Djavid spared, but Ataturk refused. ShiiteObserver October 23, 2009 @ 6:00 pm. This isn't at all surprising. The most important of these movements is currently in Saudi Arabia Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Born: Thursday, 19 May 1881 Died: Thursday, 10 November 1938 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a politician, military leader, and Freemason who established equal civil and voting rights for men and women in Turkey

Young Turks, freemasons, Jews and the question of Zionism in the Ottoman empire (1908-1913) Mim Ketnâl Öke Assistant Director of Ataturk Institute , Boğaziçi (Bosphorus) University , Istanbul Pages 199-21 - The Jewish Freemason lodges confirm that Ataturk was a Jewish Freemason - Quotations about Ataturk from the Western news media during his reign - Jews are controlling the Turkish Army - David Musa Pidcock's Grand Expose' of Freemasons, Doenmeh and Crypto Jews; Mustafa Kemal Ataturk - The Enemy of Islam (PDF-version) Commentaries on Ataturk. Ataturk's deeds and word confirm the fact that he was NOT an atheist but was a devout Muslim. Ataturk said the following words and included them in many of his speeches: In my view, even irreligious types are believers. It is impossible for a person to be irreligious. Nobodycan be irreligious. (Ataturk, 02. 02 Freemason. Freemason (Freemasonry) ialah pertubuhan persaudaraan yang muncul dengan asal usul yang kabur antara pada akhir abad ke-16 hingga awal abad ke-17. Pertubuhan ini kini wujud dalam berbagai-bagai bentuk di seluruh dunia, dengan keahliannya dianggarkan sebanyak sekitar lima juta (termasuk sekitar 480,000 orang di England, Scotland dan.

Just like liberalism, at one time, Freemasonry had its positive impact on human history. However, just like liberalism, Freemasonry today is no longer celebrated as a positive force with respect to advancing human civilization. Freemasonry is the world's most well-known secret society. Rich with symbols and ritual, it is the source of legends and conspiracy [ Albert Pike. Brother Albert Pike-Albert Pike (December 29, 1809 - April 2, 1891) was an attorney, Confederate officer, writer, and Freemason. Pike is the only Confederate military officer or figure to be honored with an outdoor statue in Washington, D.C. Albert Pike has often been named as influential in the early Ku Klux Klan, being named in. Küresel Masonluk 1717 yılında İngiltere'de kuruldu. Çok geçmeden 1721 yılında İstanbulda ilk loca Fransız masonları tarafından kuruldu ve yüzyıllarca gizli kalarak faaliyetlerini sürdürdüler ta ki meşrutiyet yıllarına ve ittihat ve terakki örgütünü kurup varlıklarını garanti altına alana kadar. Güçlerini tamamladıktan sonra Meşrutiyetin ilanından sonra 1909.

Ano Poli (Upper Town) & Acropolis (EptapyrgioThe Hidden TRUTH: Kenali tokoh tokoh Jemaah Dajjal

Feb 10, 2012 - Explore Louie Cale's board Famous Freemasons, followed by 312 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about famous freemasons, freemason, famous The Secret Society Behind Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda. by John Daniel. from ScarletAndTheBeast Website. To understand why this Muslim secret society was founded at the dawn of the 20th Century, we must return to the 11th Century thru the dawn of the 14th Century, when Freemasonry was born during The Crusades. First Crusade Freemason ialah pertubuhan persaudaraan yang muncul dengan asal usul yang kabur antara akhirabad ke-16 hingga awal abad ke-17. Pertubuhan ini kini wujud dalam berbagai-bagai bentuk di seluruh dunia, dengan keahliannya dianggarkan sebanyak sekitar lima juta (termasuk sekitar 480,000 orang diEngland, Scotland dan Ireland sahaja, serta lebih kurang dua juta orang di Amerika Syarikat).Pertubuhan. Mustafa Kemal Pascha, seit 1934 mit dem Nachnamen Atatürk (osmanisch مصطفى كمال پاشا Muṣṭafâ Kemâl Paşa; * 1881 in Selânik, heute Thessaloniki; † 10. November 1938 in Istanbul), war der Begründer der Republik Türkei und von 1923 bis 1938 erster Präsident der nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg aus dem Osmanischen Reich.

Video: PROOF: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was a Freemason Jewish

Was Kemel A Freemason? Freemasonry Muhamma

  1. Harvard University Press Book Connects the Dots Between Hitler, Ataturk. It is a well-documented fact that early in his career, Adolf Hitler took inspiration from Benito Mussolini, his senior colleague in fascism. But an equally important role model for Hitler and the Nazis has been almost entirely neglected: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder.
  2. Ataturk Kemal francmason. El arranque de Turquía después de Mustafa Kemal Atatürk no ha acabado de despejar todas las dudas y alejado los temores de sus países vecinos de Occidente, en especial de Grecia, en permanente alerta ante la amenaza de anexión total de Chipre por el gobierno de Ankara si el sector greco-chipriota intentase.
  3. In 2007 the Turkish government blocked YouTube throughout the country for 30 months, in retaliation for four unflattering videos about Atatürk that alleged that he was a Freemason and a homosexual, citing a book printed in Belgium that is still banned in Turkey - international standards of free speech be damned. I don't know about Freemasonry, but my research has shown that Atatürk was.
  4. ated government, much like Kamal Ataturk in Turkey, were criticized by a growing Islamist population, and his purported Masonic connection became added baggage to that criticism. Yet, Bourguiba passed a Law on Associations in 1959 that forced the closure of all but one lodge in the country.
  5. Some Famous Freemasons. William (Bud) ABBOTT (1897-1974) American actor & comedian, one half of the Abbott & Costello comedy duo. Harold ABRAHAMS (1899-1978) British athlete who won the 100 metre gold medal at the 1924 Olympics, dramatized in the 1981 movie Chariots of Fire. Buzz ALDRIN (1930-) American astronaut who was the second man to walk.

7 Notable Oriental Freemasons You Need To Know About

Sejarah Freemason Terdapat beberapa bukti Freemason mula tersebar di benua Eropah seawal akhir kurun ke-16 Masehi. Salah satu bukti bertulis awal yang menunjukkan cabang Freemason telah ada di England pada tahun 1641 ialah rekod inisiasi Robert Moray, salah seorang keluarga raja. Moray menjadi anggota Freemason di Edinburgh pada 20 Mei 1641 The false Freemason is Solomon- the true and righteous Freemason is the poor humble Hyram Abiff and the Hero of the true order because he refused to repeat or use Sorcery. Very Ironic that people think Freemasons revere Solomon when in fact Solomon is the arch villain of Freemasonry Lodge Freemason di Ipoh. Mosonic Hall Jalan Junid, Muar. Kuching, Sarawak. Kalau korang menyusuri jalan Tiger Lane, selepas dari Sek Menengah Izuddin dan lebih kurang 200m Pejabat Veterinar korang akan dapat melihat sebuah rumah besar yang agak klasik tetapi rasanya masih berpenghuni kerana terdapat 2 ekor anjing yang dilepaskan di dalam. Ataturk's Turkey Overturned. Some 12 or 13 years ago, when I was reporting from Israel for the New York weekly, the Forward, I wrote a piece on Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern secular Turkey, that I submitted to the newspaper with some trepidation. In it, I presented evidence for the likelihood of Ataturk's having had a Jewish — or more.

Ataturk, Mustapha Kemal. Former President of Turkey 1923-1938. Member of an Italian Lodge, Macedonia Resorta e Veritus. Austin, Stephen His plane was the Spirit of St. Louis and bore the Masonic insignia. Keystone Lodge No. 243, St. Louis, Missouri. Lipton, Sir Thomas Johnstone At least 7 injured -- some stabbed -- at California rally, authorities say. By Ralph Ellis, CNN. Updated 5:52 PM ET, Sun June 26, 2016. Seven people were taken to hospitals Sunday after violence broke out between a white supremacist group and counter-protesters, said authorities in Sacramento, California

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was JEWISH - Jews are controlling

The plans of the 1915-23 Armenian Genocide, where a million and half Armenians perished in a barbaric way in their ancestral lands in modern Turkey, actually were drawn up and were in place by the year 1910 or 1912.There is the book Inner Folds of the Ottoman Revolution written by Mevlan Zadeh Rifat in Turkish and published in 1929, the author, a pro-sultan Turk, claims that the. Islamic Caliphate came to an end in 1924, with the rise of Kemal Ataturk. NOT MANY PEOPLE KNOW THAT MUSTAFA KEMAL ATATURK WAS A DONMEH JEW AND A FREEMASON. Even Jew controlled wikipedia acknowledges under its list of Freemasons that Ataturk was a member of the Rissorta Lodge (Number 80) of Salonica

Court arrests Turkish soldier for calling Atatürk a

Albert Pike (December 29, 1809-April 2, 1891) An attorney, soldier, writer, and Freemason. Pike is the only Confederate military officer or figure to be honored with an outdoor statue in Washington, D.C. (in Judiciary Square) [9] Thomas Smith Webb, The FreeMason's Monitor: Or, Illustrations of Masonry: in Two Parts, Cushing and Appleton, Salem 1818, sayfa 285. [10] Niall Ferguson, Imparatorluk: Britanya'nın Modern Dünyayı Biçimlendirişi, (Tercüme eden: Nurettin Elhüseyni), Yapı Kredi Yayınları, Istanbul 2013, sayfa 98

Turkey - The Methven Lodge No

Well, by simply stating in one of his columns that Atatürk was a dictator.. In his defense, which he gave last week to an Istanbul court, Mr. Altan made a clever point. He asked the prosecutor to check how dictator is defined in any dictionary, and then explain why Atatürk cannot be called that way Military Masons and Empire-2. Freemasonry was introduced into Australia in the first years of colonisation. Captain James Cook was as Freemason, and military lodges were formed in New South Wales soon after the British first went there in 1788. A lodge for civilians was established in 1820. In the early years, when the colony was under military. Tor. Tor is an encrypted anonymising network that makes it harder to intercept internet communications, or see where communications are coming from or going to.. In order to use the WikiLeaks public submission system as detailed above you can download the Tor Browser Bundle, which is a Firefox-like browser available for Windows, Mac OS X and GNU/Linux and pre-configured to connect using the. The Facts About Pope John XXIII - Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli What You Need To Know About the Man who Claimed to be the Pope from 1958-1963 John XXIII Miscellaneous Information Was John XXIII a real Pope? The Case against Angelo Roncalli Revolution in Tiara and Cope: Freemasons cheer the Pontificate of John XXIII Roncalli's Friendship wit

Turkish court arrests soldier for calling Atatürk a

Gerakan ini berkembang di seluruh dunia termasuk di negara-negara Islam seperti Turki era Mustafa Kamal Ataturk. Freemason juga berkembang luas di Mesir,Magrhibi, Lubnan,Malaysia dan lain-lain. Gerakan ini dikaburkan melalui kegiatan amal seperti membantu keluarga yang miskin dan menganjurkan pertunjukan amal untuk disedekahkan kepada mereka. The only scholarly reference to it in print that I could find was in the entry on Ataturk in the Israeli Entsiklopedya ha-Ivrit, which begins: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk - (1881-1938), Turkish general and statesman and founder of the modern Turkish state Freemasonry is an historically secretive male crafts organization One thing is true, Kemal Ataturk was a bisexual pedophile whose family had converted to Islam. Another thing that was true. Turkey's defense of the Muslim Brotherhood, and the tears of Recep Tayyip Erdogan when the Egyptian security forces attempted to storm the sit-in of Rabaa al-Adawiya, proved Erdogan's ties. Mustafa Kemal 'Ataturk' (1881-1938): A Jew of Sephardic (Spanish) origin. Ataturk attended the Jewish elementary school known as Semsi Effendi School run by the Jew Simon Zvi. Over 12,000 Jews welcomed to Turkey by Ataturk in 1933 when Hitler came to power. JEW ABE FOXMAN OF THE ADL DENIES THE ARMENIAN HOLOCAUS

Masonic Secrets: The Secret Handshake, Secret Word, SecretWhy did Napoleon Put his Hand in his Jacket? - HubPages

The second part of the false dilemma is the internal development that took place in the fake Muslim societies over the past five - six decades; if the Freemasons and the Zionists wanted it, the same evolution would take place in all the Muslim countries. But for different reasons, Freemasons and Zionists did not want it so - Diringkaskan fakta, Freemason telah merancang untuk membina sebanyak mungkin pangkalan-pangkalan tentera Dajjal (Kafir) di seluruh dunia. Lihatlah bagaimana Amerika menghantar kapal tentera USS George Washington untuk persiapan perang menghadapi satu-satunya negara Timur jauh yang degil untuk akur pada 'ideologi bodoh' Yahudi seperti One World Government In the show, Jewish conspiracies often meld together with those of Britain and other European powers, the Catholic Church, socialists, Young Turks and Freemasons into one overarching scheme (the. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), initié franc-maçon en 1901. Né à WoodStock en 1874, Winston Churchill, homme d'état britannique et l'un des hommes politiques les plus reconnus du XXème siècle. Sa carrière politique est interminable : près de 60 années Saya yakin ramai pembaca blog ini sudah mengetahui perkara berkaitan Freemason iaitu sebuah pertubuhan Yahudi yang ditubuhkan hasil manifestasi daripada penemuan buku-buku sihir di dalam bilik bawah tanah Masjid al-Aqsa. Akibat tentangan hebat daripada Raja-raja di Eropah pada ketika itu, golongan penyembah Syaitan (Satan) ini telah menjalankan satu konspirasi seperti yang tercatit di dalam.